Friday, September 23, 2011



Glucose is the human body's key source of energy produced through aerobic respiration. Insulin and glucose transporter molecules get the glucose into the interior of the cell where enzymes begin to break it down to fuel the work of the cell. The Krebs cycle takes place inside the mitochondria or 'power plant' of cells and provides energy required for the organism to function. The energy released during this breakdown is stored in the mitochondria as ATP and released as needed for the work of the cell. One of the keys to longevity, anti-aging and optimum performance is to quickly lower blood sugar levels after meals and to prevent blood sugar spiking. Getting the blood sugar quickly into the cells for ATP production prevents glycation, nerve damage, insulin resistance and weight gain. Aging results in the formation of toxic Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs’) throughout the body. AGEs’ are induced by higher than desirable blood glucose levels.

GLYCATION is the pathologic binding of glucose to proteins in our body, causing them to crosslink and become non-functional. The faster our body’s proteins succumb to glycation, the sooner we age. Glycation also damages our body’s lipids, and since myelin sheaths are made of lipids this hardening of our nerves leads to a loss of nerve plasticity and function. The outer membrane of our cells is made up of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins. Since a membrane is the interface between the cell’s interior components (such as DNA and mitochondria) and the fluid surrounding the cell, maintaining these membrane structures is critical to sustaining communication between and within cells.

The non-enzymatic reaction of reducing carbohydrates with lysine side chains and N-terminal amino groups of macromolecules (amino acids, proteins, phospholipids and nucleic acids) is called the Maillard reaction or glycation. The glycation chemical modifications accumulate with age and adversely affects the functional properties of proteins, lipids and DNA. Advanced glycation end-product (AGE) are a major factor in aging and the formation of degenerative diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic renal failure. A high glycotoxin diet results from heating food for a longer period, high-protein diet combined with a high blood glucose level. Human mortality studies indicate that ideal fasting glucose levels are between 74–85 mg/dL, yet many aging people have fasting glucose above 90 mg/dL.

When proteins are cross-linked or glycated the sugar molecules stick to protein fibers, binding them together causing the fibers to become dry and brittle. In this way sugar binds to and breaks down collagen and elastin, causing them to harden. This hardening of the tissues or sclerotic inflammation is frequently calcified or ossified. As a result, skin and connective tissue loses its elasticity and permeability and becomes more vulnerable to wrinkling, sagging and UV damage. Thus glycation causes sclerosis, or the abnormal hardening or thickening of body tissues, especially of the nervous system or the inner wall of arteries. Demyelination causes scarring and hardening (sclerosis) of nerve tissue in the spinal cord, brain, and optic nerves. L-Lysine, benfotiamine and even aspirin may inhibit AGE formation.

Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine)—Carnosine inhibits glycation or cross-linking of proteins induced by reactive aldehydes, and is effective in reducing AGE formation by competing with proteins for binding with the sugars. Along with carnosine, lipoic acid has been shown to reduce protein damage from glycation. Carnosine functions as an antioxidant in cell membranes and prevents and the oxidation damage that occurs with chronic inflammation.

Pyridoxal 5’-Phosphate—Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate is the active form of vitamin B6 that has been shown to protect against both lipid and protein glycation reactions. Pyridoxamine is one of the compounds composing vitamin B6, that is particularly effective in inhibiting the formation of AGEs, therefore it is useful in longevity, memory enhancement and the prevention or eradication of age related disorders: Skin wrinkling, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, cataracts, kidney failure, Diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease. Pyridoxamine occurs naturally in fish, chicken, walnuts, carrots, eggs, and other foods.

OB-GENE AND METHYLATION—Can diet correct or prevent gestational diabetes? Methylation is the process where a methyl group is added to the DNA strand that prevents the gene from being expressed. The methyl groups used in DNA methylation are often derived from dietary sources. Scientists found that rats genetically predisposed to diabetes and obesity can produce normal offspring if fed a highly methylating-sulfur rich diet during pregnancy. Apparently the extra methylation stopped the epigenetic expression of those genes related to obesity and diabetes. Also exercise while pregnant can ameliorate obesity and diabetes, especially in genetically predisposed offspring. The 'ob' gene appears to play a role in the signaling pathway from adipose tissue that in turn regulates the amount of stored body fat. We can thus aid in overcoming intergenerational obesity through increasing the consumption of Cruciferae vegetables in our diet such as cabbage, broccoli and Brussels sprouts. Wild weeds of the mustard family like Garlic Mustard are the very best methylators, better even than domesticated plants like kale.


• Increase Insulin Sensitivity: Avocado, Maitake Mushroom, Caper, Cinnamon, Fenugreek, Ginger, Chromium, Ginseng, Grifola, Alpha Lipoic Acid
• Lowers Insulin Resistance: Chromium, Chaga Mushroom, Blueberry leaf, Fenugreek, Gingko biloba, Bilberry, Green tea, Red raspberry leaf, Nettle, Vitamins K and D.
• Mimic Effects of Insulin: Caper, Sage coriander, Garlic, Ivy Gourd, Bauhinia forficate, Banaba, Myrcia uniflora, Vanadium (vanadyl sulfate), Prickly Pear Cactus, Ginseng, Juniper Berries.
• Antioxidant and Insulin Mimetic: Alpha lipoic acid, Quercetin, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Mulberry leaf, Goat’s rue, B6, C, E, and K.
• Enhances Insulin Secretion: Reishi Mushroom Coriander, Rhodiola rosea, Holy Basil, Bitter melon, Golden seal, Juniper berries.
• Modulates glucose absorption: Bacopa, Fenugreek, Gymnema sylvestre, Aloe vera, Glucomannan, Soluble fiber/pectin, Seaweed, White bean extract, Wild African Mango extract (Irvingia), Konnyaku root, L-Carnitine.
• Lowers Blood Sugar: Alfalfa, Jambolan, Purslane, Bacopa, Pau D'Arco, Periwinkle, Uva Ursi leaves, Green tea, Onions, Flaxseed, Dandelion, Saw palmetto, Devil's claw, Magnesium, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), Benfotiamine, Juniper Berries
• Lower Blood Lipids: Shiitake Mushroom, Cinnamon, Cardamom, Caraway seed, Fenugreek, Hawthorn, Pterocarpus marsupium, Huckleberry, Blueberry, all purple berries. Chickweed breaks down the fat and the Burdock helps transport it out of the body. Citrus aurantium, or Zhi Shi, contains a combination of adrenergic amines that are powerful thermogenic agents.
• Reduces Fat Oxidation: Cinnamon, Cardamom, Turmeric, Oregano, Milk Thistle, Acai, Ginkgo, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Vitamin E, Vitamin D, Bioflavonoids and Cartenoids, L-Carnitine.
• Lowers Lactic Acid: Carnosine, Niacin, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium phosphate and Potassium phosphate. Alkaline foods, Avocado, Tomato, Lemon, Lime, Grapefruit, Rhubarb, Spinach, Lettuce, Cabbage family, Cucumber, Watercress, Celery, Pumpkin, Sunflower and Flax seeds. Any clay (inside and out) will help...and baking soda internally and/or in the bath is a very quick fix.
• Thermogenics/Fat Burners: Thermogenesis or uncoupling of mitochondrial membrane potential to produce heat rather than ATP. Ma hung, Caffeine, Cayenne, Garcinia cambogia, Citrus aurantium (Zhi Shi), Black pepper, Coco leaves, Evodiamine, Cha de Bugre, Forskolin, Yohimbine, Japanese Thistle (Circsium oligophyllum), Kelp. Some thermogenic herbs like green tea, yerba mate, nettle, cardamom, cayenne, cinnamon and dandelion are gentler than more stimulating types. Tonic and adaptogenic herbs, while less stimulating, strengthen all systems and speed up body functions.
• Lipotropics: The important lipotropics (fat dissolving) that help catalyse the breakdown of fat in human biochemistry are L-Carnitine, Choline, Inositol, Betaine, Methionine and Chromium Picolinate. Vitamin B-12 and Folic Acid are used in the synthesis of methionine and choline; Vitamin B-6 is involved in the metabolism of fats and fatty acids. Fenugreek contains lecithin which dissolves cholesterol and contains lipotropic substances, which dissolves deposits of fat, prevents fat accumulation, water retention, soothes inflamed stomach and intestines and cleans the stomach, bowels and kidneys. Other herbal lipotropic include: Triphala, Bilberry, Burdock, Ginkgo, Uva Ursi, Cardamom, Clove, Juniper Berries, Parsley root, Milk thistle and dandelion root, one of the strongest herbal lipotropics known. Black Radish, Beet Leaves, Celandine, Chionanthus help speed up the flow of bile and has a detoxifying effect on the liver and spleen. — Ergogenic is defined as enhancing performance and increasing capacity for bodily or mental labor especially by eliminating fatigue symptoms.

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